I learned this by mistake, but I think it's going to save people a lot of frustration somewhere down the line possibly.
Let me start back in September when I updated to iOS 16.0 on my iPhone SE 2020, my apps would still push notifications, but I couldn't open the apps, or access them, they'd just show up as "waiting". When I'd double tap it, nothing would happen, and when I'd press open from their entries in the app store, nothing would happen.
So I wound up wasting a half a day or more having to install everything again and adjust my nitpicky settings for every app.
So this morning, I updated to iOS 16.1.1 on my iPhone 14 pro, and this happened again. So I've just come from wasting most of a morning and half an afternoon fixing stuff, when suddenly, it dawned on me... What if I went under settings, general, iPhone Storage, then went to each app that had the waiting thing beside it, and clicked off-load? When you off-load an app, it still keeps your docs and data, and still keeps the home screen icon, but deletes the app. Luckily, I had a very few apps that I hadn't gotten to in my frenzy to fix everything, and I tested it with these, and I'll be darned, it worked.
So if anyone runs into this problem, off-load the impacted apps, and then go through your home screen and click the impacted icons (it will say in icloud), as opposed to "waiting". Then they should come back like normal.
Wish I'd known that before I just flushed most of my afternoon down the tubes.
I hope this helps someone, if they're unlucky enough to have this problem.